"Why should I bear the responsibility for your mistakes?" Nice. And you sleep with this guy?
First of all, he's not bearing the responsibility--you are. You're the one with the STD, and you're trying to prevent him from getting it by encouraging him to take precautions, which he brilliantly refuses. If you had given him rabies and he had to get 50 shots, I might understand his reluctance, but antibiotics? He just can't bear to drink that liquid, huh? It's rough stuff, I know. My daughter had the same problem.... when she was three. Does he know they have it in bubble gum flavor?
Second, what "mistakes" does he think you made, exactly? I doubt you went out and found someone with an STD just so you could sleep with them and catch it on purpose. I'm guessing you didn't know your partner had the disease, or you used a condom and still got infected. It happens--condoms are not 100% effective at preventing STDs.
Regardless of how you got it--it's irrelevant now, anyway--he's judging you and clearly has some animosity toward you about the situation. How dare you inconvenience him with an STD?!
Lastly, "I don't have symptoms--it's gone"? You didn't mention that he was a doctor. Oh, he's not? He just knows these things, huh? Maybe he can tell by listening his body. Maybe he's the Chlamydia Whisperer.
What should you do? Stop sleeping with this git. He's 1) not very bright, 2) not very nice, and 3) not very concerned about you, only himself.
I wouldn't stop there, either. If he's worried about bearing responsibility for your mistakes, there's an easy fix for that: dump his selfish ass. Unburden him from any responsibility. Tell him you hate to see him suffer so, then send the bum on his daft and merry way.